Parliament has officially been suspended for five weeks, with MPs not due back until 14 October.
Amid unprecedented scenes in the Commons, some MPs protested against the suspension with signs saying “silenced” while shouting: “Shame on you.”
It comes after PM Boris Johnson’s bid to call a snap election in October was defeated for a second time.
Opposition MPs refused to back it, insisting a law blocking a no-deal Brexit must be implemented first.
In all, 293 MPs voted for the prime minister’s motion for an early election, far short of the two thirds needed.
During the five-week suspension, parties will hold their annual conferences but no debates, votes or committee scrutiny sessions will take place.
Boris Johnson will not face Prime Minister’s Questions until the period is over and his scheduled questioning by the Commons liaison committee on Wednesday has been cancelled.
Parliament’s suspension means MPs will not get another chance to vote for an early election until they return, meaning a poll would not be possible until November at the earliest.